Monsanto, best know today for its agricultural biotechnology products, has a long and dirty history of polluting this country and others with some of the most toxic compounds known to humankind. From PCBs to Agent Orange to Roundup, we have many reasons to question the motives of this company that claims to be working to reduce environmental destruction and feed the world with its genetically engineered food crops.
Here is a video called "The World According To Monsanto" which outlines their story. There is more detailed information and articles listed below:
Headquartered near St. Louis, Missouri, the Monsanto Chemical Company was founded in 1901. Monsanto became a leading manufacturer of sulfuric acid and other industrial chemicals in the 1920s. In the 1930s, Monsanto began producing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs, widely used as lubricants, hydraulic fluids, cutting oils, waterproof coatings and liquid sealants, are potent carcinogens and have been implicated in reproductive, developmental and immune system disorders.
- The world’s center of PCB manufacturing was Monsanto’s plant on the outskirts of East St. Louis, Illinois, which has the highest rate of fetal death and immature births in the state. By 1982, nearby Times Beach, Missouri, was found to be so thoroughly contaminated with dioxin, a by-product of PCB manufacturing, that the government ordered it evacuated. Dioxins are endocrine and immune system disruptors, cause congenital birth defects, reproductive and developmental problems, and increase the incidence of cancer, heart disease and diabetes in laboratory animals.
- By the 1940s, Monsanto had begun focusing on plastics and synthetic fabrics like polystyrene (still widely used in food packaging and other consumer products), which is ranked fifth in the EPA’s 1980s listing of chemicals whose production generates the most total hazardous waste.
- During World War II, Monsanto played a significant role in the Manhattan Project to develop the atom bomb.
- Following the war, Monsanto championed the use of chemical pesticides in agriculture, and began manufacturing the herbicide 2,4,5-T, which contains dioxin. Monsanto has been accused of covering up or failing to report dioxin contamination in a wide range of its products.
- In the late 1960′s and early 1970′s, Monsanto also produced Agent Orange (a herbicide and defoliant) for U.S. military operations in Vietnam. Agent Orange was responsible for approximately 400,000 people being killed or maimed, and 500,000 children being born with birth defects.The herbicide “Agent Orange,” used by U.S. military forces as a defoliant during the Vietnam War, was a mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D and had very high concentrations of dioxin. U.S. Vietnam War veterans have suffered from a host of debilitating symptoms attributable to Agent Orange exposure, and since the end of the war an estimated 500,000 Vietnamese children have been born with deformities.
- In the 1970s, Monsanto began manufacturing the herbicide Roundup, which has been marketed as a safe, general-purpose herbicide for widespread commercial and consumer use, even though its key ingredient, glyphosate, is a highly toxic poison for animals and humans. In 1997, The New York State Attorney General took Monsanto to court and Monsanto was subsequently forced to stop claiming that Roundup is “biodegradable” and “environmentally friendly.”
- Monsanto has been repeatedly fined and ruled against for, among many things, mislabeling containers of Roundup, failing to report health data to EPA, and chemical spills and improper chemical deposition. In 1995, Monsanto ranked fifth among U.S. corporations in EPA’s Toxic Release Inventory, having discharged 37 million pounds of toxic chemicals into the air, land, water and underground.
- Since the inception of Plan Colombia in 2000, the US has spent hundreds of millions of dollars in funding aerial sprayings of Monsanto’s Roundup herbicides in Colombia. The Roundup is often applied in concentrations 26 times higher than what is recommended for agricultural use. Additionally, it contains at least one surfactant, Cosmo-Flux 411f, whose ingredients are a trade secret, has never been approved for use in the US, and which quadruples the biological action of the herbicide.
- Not surprisingly, numerous human health impacts have been recorded in the areas affected by the sprayings, including respiratory, gastrointestinal and skin problems, and even death, especially in children. Additionally, fish and animals will show up dead in the hours and days subsequent to the herbicide sprayings.
- In the 1980s and early 1990s, Monsanto was behind the aggressive promotion of synthetic Bovine Growth Hormone, approved by the FDA for commercial sale in 1994, despite strong concerns about its safety. Since then, Monsanto has sued small dairy companies that advertised their products as free of the artificial hormone, most recently bringing a lawsuit against Oakhurst Dairy in Maine.
- Monsanto began working with GMO plant cells in 1982 and conducted its first field tests of GMO plants in 1987. Since then they have marketed their GMO seeds and now control approximately 90% of the GMO seeds sold commercially. Monsanto has embarked on a buying spree of seed companies which includes Seminis, a company that provides seeds for a large number of other seed companies. (Many seed companies actually are owned, or purchase seeds from a Monsanto subsidiary.
- 1985: Monsanto purchases G. D. Searle & Company. In this merger, Searle's aspartame business becomes a separate Monsanto subsidiary, the NutraSweet Company. CEO of NutraSweet, Robert B. Shapiro, goes on to become CEO of Monsanto from 1995 to 2000.
- Monsanto began marketing rBGH (Bovine Growth Hormone also known as BST) after FDA approval in 1994.
- 1996: Acquires 49.9% of Calgene, creators of the Flavr Savr tomato in April and another ~5% in November. Monsanto first entered the maize seed business when it purchased 40% of DEKALB Genetics Corporation in 1996. It purchased the remainder of the corporation in 1998.
- Between 1997 and 2002, Monsanto sold or spun off all of its chemical companies (except agricultural chemicals such as Roundup), and concentrated on bio-technology instead. The Monsanto that worked with chemicals and the Monsanto that promotes bio-technology are two distinct legal corporations, although they share the same name and corporate headquarters. Listed below:
- 1997: Monsanto spins off its industrial chemical and fiber divisions into Solutia Inc. This transfers the financial liability related to the production and contamination with PCBs at the Illinois and Alabama plants. In January, Monsanto announces the purchase of Holden's Foundations Seeds, a privately held seed business owned by the Holden family, along with its sister sales organization, Corn States Hybrid Service, of Williamsburg and Des Moines, Iowa, respectively. The combined purchase price totals $925 million. Also, in April, Monsanto purchases the remaining shares of Calgene.
- 1999: Monsanto sells off NutraSweet Co. and two other companies.
- 2000 (spring): Monsanto merges with Pharmacia and Upjohn, and the agricultural division becomes a wholly owned subsidiary of the "new" Pharmacia; the medical research divisions, which includes products such as Celebrex, remain in Pharmacia.
- 2000 (October): Pharmacia spins off its Monsanto subsidiary into a new company, the "new Monsanto." As part of the deal, Monsanto agrees to indemnify Pharmacia against any liabilities that might be incurred from judgments against Solutia. As a result, the new Monsanto continues to be a party to numerous lawsuits that relate to operations of the old Monsanto.
- In August, 2003, Monsanto and its former chemical subsidiary, Solutia, Inc. (now owned by Pharmacia Corp.), agreed to pay $600 million to settle claims brought by more than 20,000 residents of Anniston, AL, over the severe contamination of ground and water by tons of PCBs dumped in the area from the 1930s until the 1970s. Court documents revealed that Monsanto was aware of the contamination decades earlier.
- 2005: Monsanto purchases Seminis, a leading global vegetable and fruit seed company, for $1.4 billion.
- 2007: In June, Monsanto completes its purchase of Delta and Pine Land Company, a major cotton seed breeder, for $1.5 billion. Monsanto exits the pig breeding business by selling Monsanto Choice Genetics to Newsham Genetics LC in November, divesting itself of "any and all swine-related patents, patent applications, and all other intellectual property.
- 2008: Monsanto purchases the Dutch seed company De Ruiter Seeds for €546 million, and sells its POSILAC bovine somatotropin brand and related business to Elanco Animal Health, a division of Eli Lilly and Company in August for $300 million plus "additional contingent consideration
From the Website: http://www.monsantowatch.org/index.php?page=none
Sheldon Rampton, John Stauber, Trust Us, We’re Experts (New York, NY: Penguin Putnam, 2002).
Brian Tokar, “Monsanto: A Checkered History,” The Ecologist, Sept./Oct. 1998CBS News, 60 Minutes: Herbicide Problems, January 14, 2002
2014: The Agricultural Holocaust explained: The 10 worst ways GMO's threaten humanity and our natural world:
- Monsanto’s Sordid History - Monsantowatch.org
- Monsanto: a History - GM Watch
- Monsanto’s False PR Campaign on Public Radio - GMO Journal
- Monsanto’s new ad campaign: GMO and sustainable? - Examiner
- Monsanto’s Harvest of Fear - Vanity Fair May 2008
- Your Milk on Drugs, The Dangers of rBGH in Dairy Products - Seeds of Deception
- Whistleblowers, Threats and Bribes, A Short History of Genetically Engineered Bovine Growth Hormone - Council for Responsible Genetics.
- More on Monsanto and FDA Attack on rBGH Dairys - Organic Consumers Association
- Dairy meat antibiotic violations lead to FDA milk testing investigation - AgriView
- rBGH (Posilac) – Breast Cancer and Prostrate Cancer - Ethical Investing
- FDA Regulation to Promote rBGH Milk resulted in antibiotic resistance - BioTechs Activist List
- rBGH, Monsanto and Corporate Agriculture Information about Intellectual Property Rights – Mindfully.org
- The Mystery in your Milk - Unaired rBGH Story Fox news would not allow on the air. – CQS.com
- Bovine Growth Hormone: Milk does nobody good…
- Criminal Investigation of Monsanto Corporation – Cover-up of Dioxin Contamination in Products – Falsification of Dioxin Health Studies. – purefood.org
- Corrupt Research, How the Toxicity of Dioxin was Concealed - Combat Monsanto
- Monsanto: History of Contamination and Cover-up - Natural News
- Health Effects of PCBs - Environmental Protection Agency
- Monsanto Hid Decades of Pollution - Reprint of Washington Post Article 1/1/2001 – toxics.net
- Monsanto knew about PCB Toxicity for Decades - Chemical Industry Archives
- The Monsanto Files: Fraud in Roundup / Glyphosate Testing
- GM Crops Increase Pesticides - Friends of the Earth InternationalStrategy
- Monsanto and the Roundup Ready Controversy - Source Watch
- Worse than DDT: When You Eat This, it Ends up Lingering in your Gut - Mercola
- Toxic Botulism in Animals Linked to Monsanto’s RoundUp Herbicide - Wake Up World
- Monsanto’s new seeds could be a tech dead-end – Grist
- 2,4-D Fact Sheet - Pesticide Action Network UK
- Monsanto vs. U.S. Farmers - Center for Food Safety 2005
- Farmer Says Seed Dealer Forgery Led to Legal Battle with Monsanto - Organic Consumers Association.
- Failure to Yield - Evaluating the Performance of Genetically Engineered Crops - Union of Concerned Scientists
- Court rules organic farmers can sue conventional GGMO farmers whose pesticides ‘trespass; and contaminate their fields - Natural News
- Farmers speak out: GMOs are a trap that Monsanto is using to take over agriculture - Natural News
- GM Crops Farmer to Farmer - Documentary
- French Farmers Will Have to Pay to Plant Their Own Seeds - Wake Up World
- Monsanto Sues Midwest Farmers for Saving Soybean Seeds - Organic Consumers
- Organic Farmers Sue Monsanto - RT
- Monsanto in India - Sourcewatch
- The GM genocide: Thousands of Indian farmers are committing suicide after using genetically modified crops - Daily Mail
Monsanto & The US Government
- The Amazing Revolving Door - Monsanto, FDA & EPA – Rense.com
- 1998 Edition of the Ecologist - The Monsanto Files
- Revolving Doors - Jennifer Ferrera (original from 1998 Edition of the Ecologist: The Monsanto Files)
- Reprint – Revolving Doors - Albion Monitor
- Monsanto’s Man Taylor returns to FDA in food-czar role - Grist
- You’re Appointing Who? Please Obama, Say It’s Not So - Huffington Post
- Monsanto urges FDA to stop “misleading” rBST-free labeling - The Organic and Non-GMO report
- Monsanto’s FDA goes after the Country’s Only Safe Milk - Food Freedom (Crohn’s Disease Statistics)
- Margaret Miller Bio - Toxforum.org
- Lies and Deception How the FDA does not Protect Your Best Interests - smart-publications.com
- FDA Testimony 11-30-1999 – Robert Cohen - notmilk.com
- Ex Monsanto Lawyer Clarence Thomas to Hear Major Monsanto Case - Celias
- Mark of the Beast: Obama’s latest Monsanto Pick, Elena Kagan - Food Freedom
- USDA Watch - Organic Consumers Association
- Follow the Money – Environment - Thrive Movement
- Pro-GMO chemical polluter becomes Obama’s ag trade negotiator - Food Freedom
- WikiLeaks: More Evidence of Monsanto’s Bullying and Influence-Buying - New American
- From beekeepers in France to the sweet corn at Wal-Mart – GMO news roundup (thebovine.wordpress.com)
- Monsanto: ‘There is no need for, or value in testing the safety of GM foods in humans’ (2012indyinfo.com)
- The core of the problem: #GMO Food Puts the Future of Humanity’s Food Supply At Risk (themomu.wordpress.com)